Fish floated against depression

SALMON sashimi may become a hot favourite in weekly meal plans after a Tasmanian study found women who consumed more fish could reduce their chances of developing depression.
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The study looked at 1386 adults from across Australia, aged 26 to 36, who were questioned about their mental health, diet and lifestyle, including their weekly seafood intake.

Women who ate fish at least twice a week were found to have a 25 per cent less chance of developing depression.

For males, there was no association found between depression and fish consumption.

Menzies Research Institute Tasmania researcher Kylie Smith said the study mapped all seafoods including shellfish but other studies had found fish with omega 3 fatty acids such as salmon or tuna were more beneficial.

“There have been quite a few studies that have shown connections between fish and depression but no one has ever looked at it over the long term, which is what we have done,” Dr Smith said.

“Those women who ate more fish were less likely to develop depression over the five-year follow up period.”

The report, authored by six researchers including four Tasmanians, was published in the American Journal of Epidemiology .

Out of the sample, 160 women and 70 men experienced depression in the five years following the questionnaires and interviews.

Lifestyle factors such as weight, smoking and marital status were also assessed but did not change the findings, where the risk of a new depressive episode in women decreased by 6 per cent for each additional weekly serving of fish consumed.

Dr Smith said the study could be aligned with an increasing interest to discover whether lifestyle factors can help reduce depression.

“There are some nasty side effects with [anti-depressant] drugs and some people don’t take the medication so researchers are trying to find out whether diet or physical activity can reduce depression,” she said.

The study was connected to the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study and used data from 1984, 2004 to 2006 and 2009 to 2011.

Istanbul protesters fail in bid to take Taksim Square

Protest: police walk past burning debris in the Cihangir district of Istanbul. Photo: Kate Geraghty Blockade: police officers blocked off Taksim Square. Photo: Kate Geraghty
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A man protests in front of a police line in Taksim Square Photo: Kate Geraghty

Changed crowd-control tactics by Turkish police left Istanbul dazed on Saturday evening. But there were no deaths, only few injuries and fewer than 40 arrests as thousands of protesters surged against police lines in a failed bid to take central Taksim Square.

The protesters’ objective was to occupy the square and adjoining Gezi Park, where brutal police suppression of protests a year ago sparked nationwide outrage.

Beginning peacefully on May 31, 2013, the protesters’ first objective was to block government plans to refashion the park as a mall, but the police crackdown spawned protests against the government on a portfolio of issues – and when the dust had settled eight protesters were dead and thousands wounded.

On Saturday, as many as 30,000 police, many of them in civilian garb, were flown and bussed in from across the country to take up positions around the square. Before any protesters could make their way to the square all access was blocked.

Police on the lines were overheard urging each other “calm, calm” and in many cases they opted to wait out the chanting protesters rather than resort to the tactics that caused a national explosion of anti-government anger 12 months earlier.

Fairfax Media observed a teenager exiting a local hospital, clutching an icepack to the side of his head where he claimed he had been hit by a teargas canister. An ambulance was seen speeding into the midst of protesters on Istiklal Street, a key tourist strip that runs off Taksim Square, possibly to deal with several injuries reported by local media after a water cannon smashed the glass panels in a street vendor’s trolley.

Earlier Turkey’s Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan seemed to taunt the protesters, telling them: “You’ll not be able to come to those places like you did last year.”

Mr Erdogan, who is expected to be a candidate for the Turkish presidency later this year, told a gathering the previous day: “Violence is where there is no thought and opinion. The Gezi people are those who have no thought. They never planted a tree.”

By mid-evening, tourists were making their way back to cafes on the square while police pursued the last of the protesters – some of whom used slingshots to throw stones and lit fires of protest as householders took to their balconies, beating pans and saucepans in solidarity.

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AFL: Essendon victorious over RichmondPHOTOS

AFL: Essendon victorious over Richmond | PHOTOS Jack Riewoldt of the Tigers is tackled by Cale Hooker of the Bombers during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images
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Dyson Heppell of the Bombers takes a mark during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Dyson Heppell of the Bombers is congratulated after kicking a goal during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Steven Morris of the Tigers competes for the ball during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Ben Howlett of the Bombers is congratulated by David Zaharakis after kicking a goal during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

A general view as the Bombers and Tigers stand before the Dreamtime at the ‘G match during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

The Tigers leave the field after losing the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Bombers fans look on as Jack Riewoldt of the Tigers has a shot at goal during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Brandon Ellis of the Tigers competes for the ball during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Trent Cotchin of the Tigers is tackled by Zach Merrett of the Bombers during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Joe Daniher of the Bombers runs with the ball during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Mark Baguley of the Bombers and Daniel Jackson of the Tigers compete for the ball during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Dustin Fletcher of the Bombers and Shaun Hampson of the Tigers compete for the ball during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Brett Deledio of the Tigers runs with the ball during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Jack Riewoldt and the Tigers leave the field after losing the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Courtenay Dempsey of the Bombers runs with the ball during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Dylan Grimes of the Tigers runs with the ball during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Daniel Jackson of the Tigers is tackled during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Heath Hocking of the Bombers and Matt Thomas of the Tigers compete for the ball during the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

Courtenay Dempsey, David Zaharakis and Paul Chapman of the Bombers sing the team song in the changing rooms after winning the round 11 AFL match between Essendon and Richmond. Essendon left the field victorious, defeating the Tigers 104-54. Picture: Scott Barbour/Getty Images

TweetFacebook Essendon Bombers v Richmond TigersAFL Round 11.

NRL: Cowboys keep Storm scorelessPHOTOS

NRL: Cowboys keep Storm scoreless | PHOTOS James Tamou of the Cowboys is tackled by Cameron Smith and Ryan Hoffman of the Storm during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock
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Young Tonumaipea of the Storm is tackled by Matt Scott of the Cowboys during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Brent Tate of the Cowboys is tackled by Young Tonumaipea of the Storm during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Johnathan Thurston of the Cowboys is tackled by William Chambers of the Storm during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Johnathan Thurston of the Cowboys scores a try during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Michael Morgan (L)of the Cowboys celebrets with Ray Thompson and Brent Tate after scoring a try during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Michael Morgan of the Cowboys scores a try during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Michael Morgan of the Cowboys celebrates after scoring a try during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Ethan Lowe of the Coboys is tackled by George Rose and Tohu Harris of the Storm during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Matthew Scott of the Cowboys is tackled by Cameron Smith and Kenny Bromwich of the Storm during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Johnathan Thurston of the Cowboys is tackled by William Chambers of the Storm during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Cameron Smith of the Storm walks with Johnathan Thurston of the Cowboys at the end of the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Robert Lui of the Cowboys runs the ball during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Cameron Munster of the Storm runs the ball during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Ray Thompson of the Cowboys kicks the ball during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Cameron Smith of the Storm leads his team from the field after finishing their warm up during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

Michael Morgan of the Cowboys runs the ball during the round 12 NRL match between North Queensland and Melbourne. The Cowboys kept the visitors scoreless, with the Storm failing to answer any of North Queensland’s 22 points. Picture: Ian Hitchcock

TweetFacebook North Queensland Cowboys v Melbourne StormThe Cowboys defeated the Storm 22-0.

Security guard stationed at Wodonga library

A security guard outside the Wodonga library has been employed to control unruly behaviour.Source: Border Mail
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A SECURITY guard has been stationed outside the Wodonga library to stop groups of young people disrupting and offending passers-by.

That follows reports of swearing, littering, “silly behaviour” and impromptu games of football in the space between the library and The Cube.

The council confirmed yesterday that disruptions in The Cube courtyard and inside the library had led to the move.

But it hopes using a security guard will be a short-term measure.

The guard has been in place this week as a result of behaviour involving a group of up to 20 teenagers over the previous couple of weeks.

Several members of the public complained about the disruptions to staff at the library and The Cube.

Commmunity development director Debra Mudra said the council had built The Cube and the adjacent courtyard for the whole community.

“We wanted to see a whole mix of people using that space — that’s the whole idea of it,” she said.

Ms Mudra said they were trying to work with the teenagers to get across just what was acceptable behaviour in a public space.

The council’s youth services team has also been talking to them about possible solutions, such as youth-tailored activities.

“It would be fair to say that some of them are being very responsive to us and offering us ideas,” Ms Mudra said.

“There certainly are other young people in the group who we perhaps have to keep reminding a bit more than the other ones.

“Council can’t do it alone and so that’s why it’s really important that we’ve engaged other agencies that deal with young people.”

These include youth homelessness support group Junction Support Services and Wodonga police.

“We’ve had disruptive behaviour in the library before, but this has been a bit more sustained,” Ms Mudra said.

“We wanted security there because we’re finding them very, very good with the young people in reminding them of just what is acceptable.

“If there is a little bit of banter between groups then the security is there to calm the situation down a bit.”

Ms Mudra said there were quite definite guidelines available on what constituted respectful behaviour.

“That is, you’re welcome to use the public space but there are other users,” she said.

“Different people have different expectations though on what’s acceptable behaviour.”

Ms Mudra said the council was going to “play it by ear” in deciding on when to remove the security guard.

D-Day beckons for Abbott

Bound for France: Prime Minister Tony Abbott meets D-Day airmen at Kirribilli House. Photo: James BrickwoodThere were a few dozen medals between them, squeezed on lapels not quite wide enough.
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Seven airmen of the D-Day landings chatted with Prime Minister Tony Abbott on the verandah of Kirribilli House, before they travel to France with him for the 70th anniversary of the invasion on Friday.

They were shot at, shot down and, on occasion, their aircraft limped back to England. Their efforts, on June 6, 1944, changed the course of the Second World War.

Looking forward to a break from sparring with the opposition, the PM joked: ”You guys are much more effective combatants, I am sure.”

But most of the men are now in their 90s and not as agile as they once were.

Bill Evans, a wireless operator from Sylvania in Sydney’s south, who parachuted out of his Lancaster bomber after it was shot down, found a supporting hand from the PM when he found himself stuck in his seat.

Mr Abbott asked Bill Purdy from Mosman in north Sydney, a Lancaster pilot, to recall his memories of the invasion. ”The main memory is having finished the bombing of Pointe du Hoc, turning round to come home and seeing that mass of ships,” he said.

”The greatest armada ever assembled,” the PM said. ”There was, what, 1000 ships?”

The reply gave pause for thought, even 70 years later: 5000 small ships bringing in 130,000 troops guarded by 300 naval ships preceded by 300 minesweepers.

”This was a day that changed history and Australia was part of it. To visit the D-Day landing sites along with these extraordinary heroes of our country, these national treasures, will be a real honour for me,” Mr Abbott said.

Ron Houghton, president of the Bomber Command Association of Australia, and wearing the Distinguished Flying Cross, summed it up well.

”On the day, it was just another day,” Dr Houghton said. ”But when we looked at it afterwards we realised this was going to break Germany, which it did do, and that was the beginning of the end.

”When you are young, you don’t think too much about the other people. Today I realise it was pretty tough but at that time you think: ‘Hang on, I have got to get through this myself.”’

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FOI watchdog Lynne Bertolini to meet targets with more staff, less money

The Napthine government will give Victoria’s freedom of information watchdog more staff to deal with complaints, while also diluting her performance targets so she can meet agreed timelines, at the same time as it is reducing her budget.
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Weeks after The Sunday Age revealed that FOI commissioner Lynne Bertolini was unable to meet her deadlines for reviews against government departments – resulting in 121 requests for extensions – the government announced it would provide two assistant commissioners to help.

Several staff will also be seconded from the Justice Department to create an education program for the public sector, which collectively receives more than 33,000 FOI requests a year.

Attorney-General Robert Clark said the changes would strengthen the role of the FOI commissioner, a reform he said ”Labor refused to do in their entire 11 years in office”.

But budget papers also reveal the commissioner will get less funding next financial year – $2.7 million, compared with $3.5 million this year – and that performance targets have been reduced ”to take into account the volume and complexity” of requests.

Instead of being expected to meet agreed timelines in 100 per cent of cases, the target has been lowered to 85 per cent.

Asked if she was satisfied with the powers and resources she was given by the government, or whether she would seek further reforms, Ms Bertolini told The Sunday Age: ”It is still early days, and while the office of the FOI commissioner is past the initial establishment phase, I am continuously examining internal processes to ensure this office operates as efficiently and effectively as possible.”

But Martin Pakula, Labor’s scrutiny of government spokesman, accused the Coalition of setting up the FOI commissioner to fail.

”Deadlines can’t be met and ministers can’t be compelled to release anything. Nobody blames the FOI commissioner – she’s been hamstrung by insufficient powers, and now by a funding cut,” he said.

Mr Clark, however, said the $2.7 million allocation was similar to the amount received this year ”after allowing for $800,000 of a one-off start-up and carry-over funding in 2013-14”.

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Labor split on East West Link road plan

Daniel Andrews and his team will head to November’s poll spruiking the so-called ‘West Gate Distributor’. Photo: Luis AscuiState Opposition Leader Daniel Andrews faces internal dissent over Labor’s decision not to support the western stage of the East West Link.
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Six months before the Victorian election, some MPs have questioned the move, fearing it could cost votes, not just in the party’s western heartland but in sensitive regions such as Geelong and Ballarat, which could benefit from less traffic heading into Melbourne.

Until recently, Labor supported an alternative river crossing to ease congestion on the West Gate Bridge, with Mr Andrews accusing the government of playing politics by choosing to build the eastern section of the controversial road before the western side.

”I think a second river crossing, an important redundancy for the West Gate Bridge and a link direct into the port, is a stronger project,” he said in his first major speech to the Melbourne Press Club in October 2012. ”West to east is how this project should be viewed.”

Labor now not only opposes the first stage of the road – a 6-kilometre connection from Clifton Hill to Flemington – but the second stage to join the Tullamarine Freeway to the Western Ring Road through a new arterial.

Insiders admit the shift has confused the opposition’s message, leaving some MPs unsure how to sell Labor’s transport agenda. As one source told The Age: ”Having spent so long presenting compelling arguments for the western side, it puts our critique of the East West Link in a very strange place.”

Mr Andrews and his team will now head to November’s poll spruiking the so-called ”West Gate Distributor” as the solution for congestion in the west, along with the original version of the Metro Rail Project and the removal of 50 level crossings. The $500 million West Gate Distributor involves building on and off-ramps along the West Gate Freeway, which Labor claims will take 5000 trucks off the road each day and provide better access to the port.

”Tony Abbott is providing Denis Napthine with $1 billion to build a road that costs a lot but doesn’t do very much … at the same time that he’s ripping that, and much more, out of schools and hospitals,” Mr Andrews said last week.

But Dr Napthine has seized on Labor’s position. ”They’ve literally kicked sand in the face of the people of the western suburbs who have been clamouring … for a second crossing,” he said.

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Millions spent to employ spin doctors in Immigration Department

Costly: Immigration Minister Scott Morrison spends millions of dollars a year on communications staff. Photo: Andrew MearesImmigration Minister Scott Morrison’s portfolios employ more than 95 communications staff and spin doctors, costing taxpayers at least $8 million a year.
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Details released to the Senate show the departments of Immigration, Border Protection and Australian Customs have 85 ongoing and 10 non-ongoing staff responsible for media monitoring, internal communication and public relations.

This is estimated to cost between $8 million and $9.2 million a year in salaries alone, not including superannuation, leave, allowances and other associated costs. The details were released by the Immigration Department in response to questions from Labor senator Joe Ludwig.

Mr Morrison, who regularly uses the adjectives ”on water” and ”operational” to describe matters that cannot be discussed, said through a spokeswoman that ”any suggestion these staff are all working on the minister’s liaising with the media is completely untrue”.

”These are large organisations which require a significant amount of internal and corporate communication work on behalf of these agencies,” the spokeswoman added.

Fairfax Media reported in March that there were at least 66 spin doctors working in the department under Mr Morrison.

The minister made a statement rejecting the report. He said he had only 37.9 people in communications, whereas the previous Labor government employed 44 people in this area.

Asked to explain the difference between the figure, the spokeswoman said: ”The minister was referring [in March] to the National Communications Branch of the Department of Immigration and Border Protection.

”It is important to note that of the 37.9 staff (including two seconded to Operation Sovereign Borders) in that branch as at April 30, 2014, only a third of those staff were working in the media section of the branch.

”The rest of the branch undertakes other communications work, such as campaigns and marketing, internal communications, social media, graphic design and broadcast production.”

Mr Morrison has employed a deliberately secretive approach to Operation Sovereign Borders and says doing so has contributed to the program’s success in ”stopping the boats”.

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Big data the key to improving urban efficiency

Cities that fail to embrace ”big data” – and the meteoric rise of smartphones and the internet – to get more out of their existing infrastructure will be left behind, according to one of the world’s leading ”smart cities” advocates.
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Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Carlo Ratti said many disruptive internet applications had made it possible to get higher productivity out of the assets cities such as Melbourne already possessed.

Speaking at the International Transport Forum in Leipzig, Germany, last week, Professor Ratti said websites such as room-letting service Airbnb and the controversial ride-sharing smartphone app Uber were examples of how access to information meant infrastructure could be better used.

There were about 2800 rooms, apartments and houses for rent in Melbourne on Airbnb, a website that allows people to rent a spare room or an entire house or flat to strangers.

In Paris, since Airbnb’s launch in 2008, there were an extra 16,000 rooms – something Professor Ratti said had negated the need to build more hotels.

”Airbnb has totally changed the way many people get a room in a different city,” the 43-year-old Italian architect and engineer said. ”It has done it not by building many, many new hotels, but by using spare capacity.”

Airbnb has in several instances, notably in Docklands, caused issues with apartments rented out via the website used for all-night parties.

”Overall, though,” Professor Ratti said, ”it is a beautiful thing because it allows us, without changing the physical world, to use things better in a more effective way.”

Professor Ratti was among a clutch of urban planning experts presenting at the forum. Many of the speakers focused on how ”big data” is already helping the planet run its cities far more efficiently.

Professor Ratti and fellow presenters at the forum’s ”Transport Innovation” session argued that cities embracing innovations made available from this data – now flowing from smart phones in particular – will save or delay billions of dollars in infrastructure spending by working existing facilities harder.

Professor Ratti said that in cities whose roads are clogged to standstill by unpredictable traffic jams – ”Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo or Moscow, you don’t know if it will take you half an hour or four hours [from the airport] because of traffic” – building new roads is not the answer. ”It will not solve the problem and it will be incredibly expensive. The only thing you can do is use the infrastructure we have better, and to do that we have to work with real-time data and synchronised traffic flows.”

The forum was also addressed by Corey Owens from global ride-sharing service Uber, a smartphone app that can allow any motorist to be paid for providing lifts.

Mr Owens said taxis were an ”incredibly structural problems for cities” because too often large queues of cabs were sitting at airports or in city centres for hours at a time. ”That means [drivers] are struggling to provide for their families. Meanwhile, consumers are pissed at them for not providing a good service. How is it possible that both supply and demand are being failed?”

Professor Ratti said serious legal issues concerning services such as Airbnb and Uber are the result of a lack of laws around the new services. ”We are seeing the difference between regulations that are based on static systems and the ability that we have now to have much more dynamic systems.”

Xerox Corporation recently delivered an intelligent parking system to the city of Los Angeles that made variable pricing possible for 6000 individual on-street spots – allowing the city to increase the cost of parking in some locations and send a message to drivers to consider parking elsewhere. It resulted in a 10 per cent improvement in traffic.

Clay Lucas travelled to Leipzig courtesy of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

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